Conclusion

Girl Spinner

A new ideology of women’s work emerged in interwar Turkey but the sexual division of labour and its hierarchies of wage and skill remained untouched. Women’s hesitancy to join the industrial workforce attested to the limits of the regime’s success in achieving industrial modernity. The discourse of national industrial heroines neither eliminated women’s work disadvantages nor changed popular perceptions of their social roles. No wonder that women’s double burden and the gendered labor hierarchies persisted: After all, their abolishment never belonged to the masculine imagery of industrial futurism.